Translation revision (TR) is an important step in the translation workflow. However, translation revision competence (TRC) remains an ill-defined concept. This article addresses that gap by operationalizing the TR concept and by presenting a theoretical TRC model. Subsequently, the article analyses and interprets the results of an empirical pilot study designed to test the presence of two TR subcompetences hypothesised by the TRC model, in an experimental group and a control group of 21 MA language students. The experimental group was given TR training halfway through the experiment whereas the control group was not. The two subcompetences that were tested by means of a pretest–posttest experimental design were declarative-procedural knowledge about TR and the procedural strategic revision subcompetence. Both groups of participants replied to questionnaires and performed controlled revision tasks, which were subjected to quantitative statistical analyses. The results show that the participants’ TR knowledge was limited in the pretest and that this knowledge improved marginally only in the experimental group in the posttest (i.e., after TR training). This article provides a detailed analysis of the results and the causes of the limited progress. In addition, it discusses the lessons learnt for both TR training and further research.